The past two years have taught epidemiologists a lot about real-time surveillance of transmissible illnesses.
One of the main conclusions we came to is that sewage water can reveal a lot about a community.
In September 2020, the US Centers for Disease Control (CDC) began a National Wastewater Surveillance System (NWSS).
The NWSS was created to monitor and coordinate the covid virus in wastewater samples collected across the United States.
"This allows wastewater surveillance to act as an early warning sign that COVID-19 is spreading in a community. Communities may take steps quickly to prevent the spread of COVID-19," according to the CDC.
During the polio epidemic in the summer of 1939, Yale epidemiologists were able to detect poliovirus in sewer water.
"This virus may be transported, for short periods at least, through the medium of flowing sewage," Yale researchers wrote at the time.
Covid has begun to sag behind other public concerns in 2022, but wastewater surveillance is now giving the CDC information on another possible outbreak that has resulted in California and New York City both declaring a state of emergency.
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Monkeypox on the Strip
The Southern Nevada Health District is looking through the poo to keep a handle on the situation. As of August 1, there are 23 probable and confirmed cases of monkeypox in Clark County.
The good news is that the monkeypox signal is relatively low, and it is coming from strategic manholes that service sections of the Las Vegas Strip as well as from at least 1/15 wastewater treatment facilities, according to UNLV associate professor Dr. Edwin Oh.
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The UNLV surveillance program involves about 2.4 million people, and this coverage should be able to detect if there are increasing instances of the virus in the population.
The wastewater being investigated comes from water coming from casinos and hotels on the Strip and elsewhere in the area.
monkeypox-infected individuals remove viral DNA through skin lesions, saliva, feces, and urine.
According to Casino.org, viral levels are currently low from our readings, suggesting that a high degree of transmission is not occurring in Las Vegas.Because infected individuals (who may be asymptomatic or symptomatic) will shed the virus, the actual number of infected individuals may be higher than the reported numbers.
Monkeypox infection is usually transmitted via skin-to-skin contact with an infected person, and may be transmitted via sexual contact as well. The virus is painful but only occasionally fatal.
Infections in Major Cities
Due to an increasing number of monkey pox cases, San Francisco became the first major city to declare a public health emergency last week.
New York City followed suit over the weekend.
Mayor Eric Adams of New York referred to the five boroughs as the "epicenter" of the country's monkeypox epidemic, claiming that as many as 150,000 city residents might be at danger.
Gov. Kathy Hochul (D) of New York has issued a state disaster emergency that will allow additional health care workers, including EMTs and midwives, to administer the vaccination.
According to the SNHD, fever, headache, muscle pain, backache, exhaustion, swelling lymph nodes, and chills are typical.
The irritation looks like pimples or fluid-filled blisters that may develop on the hands, feet, chest, genitals, or inside the body, including the mouth, vagina, or anus.
Monkeypox symptoms last between two and four weeks after exposure.