The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Council of Nuclear Research (CERN) is a massive particle collider (synchrotron) in Geneva, Switzerland. Ten years ago, on this day (July 4th), LHC announced that physicists across the world had been eagerly anticipating the Higgs Boson particle.
The existence of the Higgs Boson was a "last missing piece" of the Standard Model of Physics for decades. The particle was crucial in proving the existence of the Higgs field, which gives mass to all elementary particles.
InLeon M. Lederman andDick Teresi's1993 bookThe God Particle: If the Universe Is the Answer, What Is the Question? This is because of the long-held assumption by physicists that the particle must exist, yet it is so elusive, that I have given it a name: the God Particle, given its deadly nature and the harm it is causing.
On July 4, 2012, CERN announced the confirmation of the Higgs Boson's existence.
The discovery of the Higgs boson was a major milestone in particle physics, according to CERN's Director-General, Fabiola Gianotti. It marked both the end of a decades-long exploration journey and the beginning of a new era of research of this very special particle.
Scientists have solved several mysteries related to the Higgs Boson particle in the past decade. Recently, CERN scientists published several research papers in the journal Nature, highlighting the achievements and future goals of the Higgs Boson research.
The Higgs Boson research's astonishing conclusions
The Higgs boson was discovered in an international collaboration between the ATLAS and CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) teams at CERN that included more than 5,500 engineers, technicians, particle scientists, students, and other supporting members from 54 nations. The LHC's discovery is one of the most significant scientific projects in history.
All of the LHC observations so far have been based on merely 5% of the total amount of data that the collider will provide in its lifetime, according to CERN. Already, it has established several theories and predictions of the Standard Model of Physics and also provided additional information.
Here are some of the most significant findings from the Higgs Boson research:
According to CERN, "the experiments have also revealed a series of intriguing deviations from the Standard Model that require further investigation," and have investigated the quark-gluon plasma that filled the universe in its early stages in unprecedented detail.
According to CMS representative Luca Malgeri, the Higgs boson itself may indicate other phenomena, including some that might be responsible for the existence of dark matter in the universe.
The road ahead is paved with adventure.
The Higgs Boson research is still going on, and the LHC is continuing to provide valuable data related to Higgs fields and the Higgs boson. Questions include, "Does the Higgs field also give mass to the lighter fermions, or could another mechanism be at play? Can it interact with dark matter and reveal the nature of this mysterious form of matter?" Does the Higgs boson have twins or relatives?"
Although scientists have gained a lot of knowledge about the particle in the last ten years, there is still a lot of information that needs to be discovered. Researchers atCERN are also developing plans for anew collider, dubbed the Future Circular Collider, that would be 100 km (62-mile) in circumference, significantly larger than the 27 km LHC. Once operational, the FCC will be able to spit out huge quantities of Higgs bosons, allowing scientists to map the
The FCC will be built in stages, according to current plans. The tunnel will initially house an electron-positron device that collides electrons with their antimatter counterpart, the positron. This will allow scientists to investigate the four most powerful particles, including the Higgs boson, and help identify exactly how the Standard Model differs from reality.
The same instrument might be repurposed to create a proton-proton collider that will operate at 100 teraelectronvolts (TeV) energy, potentially opening up the discovery of new particles.
The research seems to have just begun.
The published papers (1, 2, and 3) that cover the ten years of Higgs Boson research are published in the journal Nature.