The First Panoramic Spatial Atlases of Life Have Been Released

The First Panoramic Spatial Atlases of Life Have Been Released ...

International scientists led by China''s BGI-Research today published state-of-the-art panoramic spatial atlases of life, examining organisms'' cellular dynamics at different developmental stages, and providing potentially significant new information for disease treatment, development, and aging, as well as an improved understanding of biological evolution.

STOC members used the spatially resolved transcriptomics technique Stereo-seq, developed by BGI-Research, to create spatiotemporal cellular maps of mice, small fruit flies (Drosophila), zebrafish, and theArabidopsisplant. The papers demonstrate how Stereo-seq has achieved a significant breakthrough in spatial resolution and panoramic field of view, enabling the distribution and placement of molecules and cellsin situ.

The study, based on DNA nanoball-patterned arrays, discusses mouse organogenesis in the Series of Chemistry. Among the other three studies onDrosophila, zebrafish, andArabidopsisare, the discovery of functional cells has significant implications for understanding which cells are linked to disease. This could lead to future advancements in human disease research.

In the past, thousands or even thousands of experiments were required to complete a spatiotemporal map. Now, with the Stereo-seq technology, it can be achieved swiftly and comprehensively with one. Dr. Chen Ao, who led the development of the Stereo-seq technology at BGI-Research, has stated that the research is the first step in life sciences technology advancement.

So far, over 80 scientists from 16 countries, including scientists from Harvard University, Oxford University, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Cambridge, the Karolinska Institutet, the University of Western Australia, the Genome Institute of Singapore, and BGI, have collaborated as part of STOC, a collaborative scientific collaboration group focusing on mapping and understanding life.

Spatial transcriptomics is a new technology that addresses previous challenges identifying characteristics of single cells within a biological tissue. It builds on the success of single-cell sequencing, increasing it to the next level by permuting scientists to find a cell''s precise location and how it interacts with its neighbors.

BGI''s own patented DNA nanoball technique, which amplifies small fragments of DNA into larger quantities, was combined with itsin situRNA capture technology to achieve Stereo-seq (SpaTial Enhanced REsolution Omics-sequencing) at a subcellular resolution of 500 nanometers (equivalent to 0.0005 meter) combined with a panoramic centimeter-level field of view.

The development of a single cell analytical technique over the last twenty years has really helped us to understand how cells differ from others. This year, Patrick Maxwell, the director of the Cambridge Medical School, said, has expanded the scope of his research to a new level: he uses a large size field of view, making it possible to analyze a tissue on a scale of a developing mouse embryo with a very significant transcriptomic read depth.

This allows us and the users of this information to begin to understand some very interesting questions about how mammalian development works, how tissues are organized. That will help us understand developmental processes, normal tissue function, and diseases, according to the author.

Scientists can discover which animals or plants are on earth, whether it be the area, the habitat, and how they may propagate and develop, thanks to Stereo-seq.

The scientists used Stereo-seq to investigate mice''s early embryonic development, ranging from 9.5 to 16.5 days during which embryonic growth is occurring at a fast rate. The Mouse Organogenesis Spatiotemporal Transcriptomic Atlas (MOSTA) has been developed, combining single-cell resolution and high sensitivity to depict the kinetics and directionality of transcriptional variation during mouse organogenesis.

Stereo-seq is a breakthrough in spatial transcriptomics and is today''s most powerful technology, according to Dr. Liu Longqi of BGI-Research, one of the corresponding authors. Today, we have now developed a technology to map a panoramic atlas of every cell in an organism in space and over time. We have demonstrated its robustness, and successfully mapping both animal and plant molecular physiology at a scale and resolution never previously possible.

For the first time, scientists were able to create a series of high-definition maps revealing the exact location of the roughly 300,000 cells from the day 16.5 embryo. BGI-Research used this information to create a panoramic atlas of the mouse and gain insight into the molecular basis of cell variation and differentiation in developing brain tissues, including the dorsal midbrain.

The successful use of our Stereo-seq technology for development has significant implications for genomic research on human diseases, according to co-corresponding author Dr. Xu Xun, the director of BGI-Research. Demonstrating that this technology can identify certain cells that indicate future disease will be critical for diagnostics and therapeutics for a number of conditions.

Robinow syndrome is a common birth defect. Clinically, a gene related to this has been discovered, but how it is responsible for cleft lip and palate defects, and how it is linked to it, is unknown. Researchers examined the cleft lip and palate-related gene in mouse embryonic development, and found that the gene was present in the mice''s lips and toes, and showed excellent expression. This knowledge will potentially aid researchers in developing Robinow syndrome birth defects in humans.

The BGI-led team coordinated similar embryonic research with the zebrafish, which has a gestation period of only 24 hours, and produced a 3D model of the cellular map of the small fruit flyDrosophila. The spatiotemporal transcriptomic atlas of embryonic development inDrosophila, the zebrafish, and mouse have opened new doors for research into embryonic development, as well as for a benchmark for unraveling embryonic evolution.

Through stereo-seq research on the leaf cells of theArabidopsisplant, researchers were able to overcome the long-term difficulties for researchers to conduct spatially resolved single-cell omics investigations on leaves and other plant tissues. BGI-Research was able to demonstrate that stereo-seq technology can be applied in plant scientific research and crop breeding studies. This includes understanding key genes involved in seed development, mechanisms behind drought resistance, and mechanisms behind salt tolerance, for staple crops. This could lead to the cultivation of

Before the results of the studies, we obtained all necessary ethical clearance.

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