SARS-CoV-2 Infection Prompts Antibodies Against Common Colds

SARS-CoV-2 Infection Prompts Antibodies Against Common Colds ...

COVID-19 may, at least temporarily, increase the amount of antibodies you have against common cold-causing coronaviruses, including the SARS-CoV-1 and MERS-CoV viruses. COVID-19 may have an impact on the immune system''s ability to recognize other coronaviruses.

For COVID-19 as well as future, related pathogens, Researchers should get a better understanding of immunity against this broad family of coronaviruses, according toAndrew Ward, PhD, a professor of Integrative Structural and Computational Biology at Scripps Research and senior author of the new study, published this week in Science Advances.

The SARS-CoV-2 strain that causes COVID-19 is just one in a large and diverse family of coronaviruses. A few of their relatives are equally contagious and virulent, causing the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) and the 2002-2004 SARS outbreak, although others are considered common cold viruses. Many of these coronaviruses have only one quarter to one half their genetic material in common with SARS-CoV-2, but individual sections of the viruses are considered relatively

Scientists have wondered whether previous exposure to those common cold viruses affected people''s immunity to SARS-CoV-2, but also whether infection with COVID-19 might alter the way the immune system recognizes the more common coronaviruses. Immun systems antibodies against one coronavirus spike protein might, potentially, also recognize other similar spike proteins as disease-causing.

The Wards group analyzed serum samples from eleven individuals. Eight of the samples dated to the COVID-19 epidemic to ensure donors had never been exposed to the SARS-CoV-2 virus, while three samples were from individuals who recently had COVID-19. In each case, the researchers assessed how strongly the samples reacted to isolated spike proteins from different coronaviruses OC43 and HKU1, both linked with common colds, along with SARS-CoV-1, MERS-CoV, and S

Only the serum from recovered COVID-19 patients responded to the SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins. However, these COVID-19 patient samples also reacted more strongly to the other spike proteins than previously reported.

Most people have this baseline immunity to common coronaviruses, and exposure to SARS-CoV-2 increases the levels of these antibodies, according to Scripps Research postdoctoral researcher Sandhya Bangaru, the first author of the new paper.

On serum antibodies from three healthy donors and two COVID-19 patients, Ward, Bangaru, and their partners performed high-resolution structural analyses to establish where each antibody was attached. These findings show that most coronavirus antibodies from the previous pandemic recognized a section of the OC43 and HKU1 spike proteins known as the S1 subunit, which has varies significantly between coronaviruses. Similarly, some antibodies from the COVID-19 patients were not only linked to the common cold coron

According to Bangaru, the goal of this study is to rationally develop vaccines that can detect many different coronaviruses. We have found several conserved patches on the S2 subunit targeted by naturally induced antibody during infection, which we aim to focus on.

As these studies were conducted directly on serum antibodies, the researchers cannot pinpoint whether their presence in any of these instances is sufficient to provide complete immunity to coronaviruses in the most difficult conditions of the human immune system. However, it is unclear how much each of these factors contributes to the overall increase and how they might impact the course of COVID. In the near future, they intend to compare antibodies from the same individuals pre- and post-infection with COVID-19.

A baseline characterization of people''s antibodies to the endemic coronavirus prior to SARS-CoV-2 exposure is required, but there are a tumultuous questions, according to Bangaru. This will result in even more research.

Aleksandar Antanasijevic, Leigh M. Sewall, Abigail M. Jackson, Jeffrey Copps, and Alba Torrents de la Pena of Scripps Research; Nurgun Kose, Naveenchandra Suryadevara, Xiaoyan Zhan, and James E. Crowe Jr. of Vanderbilt University Medical Center

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