Longevity of the Brain Stem Cells Has Been Identified Protein Key

Longevity of the Brain Stem Cells Has Been Identified Protein Key ...

According to a Rutgers research, a receptor that was first identified as necessary for insulin action, which is also located on the neural stem cells found deep in the mice, is crucial for brain stem cell longevity, and it has significant implications for brain health and future therapies for brain disorders.

The research, which has appeared in the journalStem Cell Reports, identifies a specific protein known as the insulin receptor (INSR), which is abundant on the neural stem cells that reside in the brains subventricular zone. These neural stem cells maintain the whole nervous system during development, and they continue to develop once more. These neural stem cells continue to build new neurons and non-neuronal cells that enhance the brain''s infrastructure and functioning.

During their study of brain tumors, scientists uncovered another finding: InSR plays a vital role in maintaining and maintaining a large number of specialized brain cancer cells known as glioblastoma (GBM stem cells). When they inactivated the INSR in the GBM stem cells, they inhibited the growth of those primitive tumors.

According to Steven Levison, a research author, the molecular mechanisms that are important for the brain''s growth and sustenance under normal and abnormal growth conditions. Comprehending these primitive cells might one day lead to new therapies for brain diseases.

Many neurodegenerative disorders, such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson disease, and Alzheimers disease, are linked to brain destruction, according to co-author Teresa Wood, a Distinguished Professor and Rena Warshow, who has been awarded a Chair in Multiple Sclerosis at the Rutgers Medical School.

If we could influence how brain stem cells function, then we may use this knowledge to replace diseased or dead brain cells with living ones, which would greatly improve the treatment of neurological disorders and brain injuries, according to Wood.

Cell receptors such as INSR are protein molecules that reside on cells'' surface. Substances, either natural or human-made, that open the lock of a receptor can cause a cell to divide, differentiate, or die. Through their discovery, scientists can identify receptors that perform these functions as key to receptors, to turn them on or off.

Previous studies by this research team had shown that a certain key, the signaling protein known as the insulin-like growth factor-II, was necessary to maintain the neural stem cells in the two locations of the adult brain that harbor these primitive cells. In the present experiment, scientists were using genetic tools that enabled them to both delete the INSR and introduce a fluorescent protein so they could monitor the neural stem cells and their cells. They found that the number of neural stem cells in mice lacking the INSR collapsed.

The idea that new cells are created in the adult brain has become a worldwide topic of scientific inquiry since the late 1990s, when researchers examined what was previously a theory in lab experiments of human, primate, and bird brains. Neural stem cells in the adult are stem cells that can self-renew and produce new neurons and the supporting cells of the brain, including oligodendrocytes and astrocytes.

Given the widespread interest in stem cells as well as the possibility that altered adult stem cells may lead to cancer, our research findings should be of interest, according to Levison.

Shravanthi Chidambaram, Fernando J. Velloso, Deborah E. Rothbard, and Yvelande Cajuste of the Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Neuroscience at Rutgers New Jersey Medical School. Other participating researchers were at the University of Minnesota, the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, and Brown University.

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