A research group led by Sa Kan Yoo at the RIKEN Center for Biosystems Dynamics Research (BDR) has discovered a completely unknown type of cell death that takes place in the guts of the common fruit fly. The findings require a revision of the conventional concept of cell death, while posing a challenge to the previously established method of tissue homeostasis in the gut.
The intestines are constantly dying and being replaced by new cells, according to new research. Apoptosis is the other three type of cell death that is currently recognized. This assumption is put in jeopardy, providing evidence for a second type of programmed cell death that might be specific to the intestines.
The researchers were examining a fruit fly version of ANCE, an enzyme that assists lower blood pressure. They discovered thatAnceexpression in the fly gut was patchy, and that the cells that contained it had unusual characteristics. However, they found that Ance described them as dark, lacking nuclear membranes, mitochondria, and cytoskeletons, and sometimes even DNA and other cellular components that are required for them to stay alive.
The process was so gradual, and unlike the more immediate and intense cell death seen in apoptosis, they realized it might be something new. Because the Ance-positive cells were often near where new cells are born in the gut, they theorized that the new type of cell death is related to turnover in the intestines. They tentatively called the process erebosis, based on the Greek erebos, meaning darkness, because the dying cells looked so dark under the microscope.
The researchers conducted several experiments to prove erebosis is a fresh type of cell death. First, the study stated that, when stopping apoptosis, cell turnover in the gut could not be prevented. Second, the dying cells did not show any of the molecular markers for apoptosis or the other two types of known cell death.
Detailed examination of the cells in which erebosis occurred revealed that they were located near clusters of gut stem cells. This is evidence that erebotic cells are replaced by newly differentiated gut cells during turnover. Ironically, the enzyme that led to this discovery does not appear to be directly involved in the process, as knocking down or overexpressing Ance did not affect turnover or erebosis. Therefore, the next step is to investigate the extensive molecular events that enable ereb
I believe that our findings have the potential to be a seminal finding. Personally, this research is the most powerful I have ever done in my life. Yoo, We are particularly interested in the possibility of erbosis in the human gut as well as in fruit flies.