In recent years,messenger RNA, the fast-growing protein that funnels from a string of genetic blueprints to a fully functioning organism, has received increasing scrutiny in the scientific and medical community for its role in the development of next-generation vaccines, cancer treatments, and stem cell therapies addressing a wide range of previously incurable diseases.
Following the rush to discover a type of vaccine that might prevent COVID-19 fatalities, the previously obscure subject of mRNA became a virtually universal household utterance. Pfizers'' mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, with products with similar action mechanisms closely follow from other US and global pharmaceutical companies.
An international research team led by ProfessorKatsura Asanoof Hiroshima University''sGraduate School of Integrate Sciences for Lifein Japan and also of Kansas State University in the United States was able to work to develop new methods to artificially induce mRNA to respond in ways that could eventually lead to therapeutic outcomes, further expanding on the success of the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccinations and introducing further possibilities across a host of future genetic therapies.
Asano and his research team focused on a biochemical technique called chemical modification, which adds a chemical mark to RNA bases, corresponding to a genetic letter of lifes blueprint, and identified chemical marks that both speed up and slow down action in the beginnings of the chemical zippers involved in the production of gene-specified proteins.
RNA is urged to do so in the protein production process with a signal called the AUG Start Codon, a universal code for protein''s genetic zipper. Other RNA codons, such as GUG (amino acid Valine), UUG (amino acid Leucine), and CUG (also Leucine), are generally considered non-start codons, meaning they are less likely to represent the beginning of a gene translation. Instead, they appear in the middle of a protein coding
However, Asano and his team began testing common RNA chemical modifications and concluded that each gene is different by one letter from AUG. The results were calculated by flow cytometry to measure fluorescence from 10,000 cells per attached RNA sequence and start codon. This method allowed the participants to evaluate possible cross-section results.
When a certain non-AUG start codon received a certain chemical mark, they discovered common problems in improving translation efficiencies. A remarkable discovery was the ability of U-to-Pseudouridine (pseudouridine) conversion to dramatically increase initiation potentials of CUG, GUG, and UUG start codons (and more satisfyingly no impact on AUG). Chemical modification of non-AUG start codons is an old but new concept. This approach involves highlighting the possibility
Asano hopes that the medical industry will take note of this new collection of data and continue to investigate how to use chemical modified RNA for generating synthetic expression switches in order to stimulate translation activity in a highly targeted way in humans and animals. I am also hoping that the companies that have developed mRNA vaccines will benefit from our findings. For example, they might use UUG start codon and chemically modify mRNA by 1 million Psi, according to Pfizer''s COVID-19 vaccine. They will allow
So far, no significant limitations have been identified when comparing various mRNA vaccinations. However, there is a possibility that vaccinations against retroviruses make vaccine cDNA when the patient encounters these viruses during immunization. However, the antibody may be expressed in a way that reduces vaccination production for improving. So, we hope these techniques will be adopted.