According to the World Health Organization (WHO), overweight and obesity are among the most important health challenges of the 21st century. Almost 60 percent of Germans are obese, while 25 percent are obese. Deteriosclerosis, or heart problems, are also associated with being overweight.
The size of fat tissue in the abdomen or the visceral adipose tissue, to be technical, is significant. This tissue is associated with an inflammatory immune response that encompasses the whole body, thus increasing the possibility of secondary diseases. Here immune cells can establish themselves into lymphoid structures and instigate immune responses that derail the person''s metabolism.
Diet is key
Upon completion of a three-week high-fat, high-caloric diet, scientists discovered that excessive food energy is stored in adipose tissue, such as visceral fat, which is located in the abdomen and between the internal organs. Although everyone has this visceral fat, a diet that is particularly high in calories causes its expansion and poses a risk to health.
Immunlogical patterns have become unbalanced as the researchers demonstrate that a particular form of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) is formed in the visceral adipose tissue. The tertiary lymphoid tissue begins to form, in which pDCs orchestrate the immune system and influence metabolism.
These structures form at a different rate when the adipose tissue expands. Today, pDCs intervene acutely in the metabolism, creating a metabolic syndrome as the pDCs in the visceral fat are in constant state of alert.
pDCs are typically the first barrier in a viral infection, to which they respond by releasing a messenger (type-I interferon) that instructs the immune system, according to Professor Barbara Walzog from the Walter Brendel Laboratory of Experimental Medicine at LMU and head of the Collaborative Research Center SFB 914 Trafficking of Immune Cells in Inflammation, Development, and Disease."
The metabolism dies and the metabolic syndrome are discovered when the migration of pDCs into the fat becomes blocked. Weight gain is reduced, and the metabolic condition is improved, according to Stutte.
The study was carried out in collaboration with Harvard Medical School, and the findings could help with the development of new ideas for therapeutic therapy for metabolic diseases. In this case, the migration of the pDCs into the fat follows exact molecular patterns, which can be described as maps. If we could stop the pDC''s migration into the fat, for example, we may be able to prevent the resulting secondary diseases as well, according to Walzog.