Skin Cancer Cells Thrive in the Brain Thrive Through Alzheimer's Protein

Skin Cancer Cells Thrive in the Brain Thrive Through Alzheimer's Protein ...

A new research claims that Amyloid beta, a protein known to build up in people with Alzheimer disease, assists skin cancer cells in survival when they spread to the brain.

InCancer Discovery, a research journal for cancer research, the inmelanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, and cancer cells that have spread to the brain, were examined by amyloid beta to survive there. In 40 percent of patients with advanced (stage 4) illness, the highest rate among common cancer types, the study found that inmelanoma, the deadliest form of skin cancer, spread to the brain depend on amyloid beta to survive there.

The study, led by researchers from the NYU Grossman School of Medicine and the NYU LangonesLaura and Isaac Perlmutter Cancer Center, has revealed that metastatic melanoma cells recovered from human brains and grown in tissue cultures make roughly three times as much amyloid beta as cancer cells that have spread to other parts of the body.

The researchers found that the amyloid beta, which is secreted by cancer cells, boosts immunity that might otherwise recognize cancer cells as abnormal and attacks them, much as they attack infectious bacteria. Amyloid beta, according to the study participants, has transformed brain immune cells into a mode known as infections fade and tissues heal, allowing cancer cells to escape notice.

A senior study author finds a tumor-secreted amyloid beta in the formation of cancerous brain tumors, and proposes a new way to mitigate it.Eva M. Hernando-Monge, the assistant director of Pathology, has written about her findings.

The present finding opens the doors to the mystery surrounding amyloid beta, the major component of Alzheimers disease deposits found in the brains of people with Alzheimers disease. Despite myriad studies, its roles in normal functioning and Alzheimers disease remain controversial, even as new potential roles arise, according to Dr. Hernando Monge, a member of the Perlmutter Cancer Center.

Cancer Cant Take Root

The researchers then measured the proteins produced by the melanoma cells in the first use, to their knowledge, of a whole cell proteomics study to investigate brain metastases.

The authors claim that by using 24 human brain and nonbrain cancer metastases grown in short term-cultures, the team was able to demonstrate that melanoma cells from the brain produce proteins related to Alzheimers disease,Parkinsons disease, and Huntingtons disease. The discovery of a connection between brain cancer and neurodegenerative diseases was made possible, thanks to new techniques that allow the research team to tell proteins made by cancer cells apart from those made in adjacent brain cells.

Cancer cells produce amyloid beta in the brain to help their survival, according to researchers. To test the theory, they investigated the effect of silencing the gene that determines amyloid precursor protein (APP), a protein that is processed by secretase enzymes (beta and gamma) into amyloid beta, in melanoma cells implanted in mice. This effect, by reducing the amount of cancer metastases that formed in the brain, was dramatically reduced.

melanoma cells lacking amyloid beta became incapable of successfully growing (divide and multiply) due to immune attack at the stage where they are developing small cell colonies (micrometastases) that are needed for spreading cancer cells to take root in a new tissue.

Amyloid beta, which is released by melanoma cells, has significantly altered gene expression in astrocytes, and brain cells that nourish message-carrying neutrrons. This suggests that the astrocytes emit proteins that inhibit immune responses to cancer. Amyloid beta, which is also known to exchange signals with microglia, is also inhibiting microglia, according to the authors.

Clinical trials have already shown that amyloid beta levels can be enhanced effectively and safely, according to first study author Kevin Kleffman, PhD, anMD/PhD studentat NYU Langone, and a member of the Dr. Hernando-Monges lab. With this in mind, our team is already looking into whether altered antiamyloid beta antibodies might prevent or reduce brain metastases in animal studies. Another step is combining immunotherapies, including checkpoint inhibitors, and antiamyloid beta

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