A new study claims that two indigenous groups in the Bolivian Amazon have among the lowest rates of dementia in the world as scientists search for solutions for Alzheimer''s disease.
According to the American Zoo, a global group of researchers discovered that among older Tsimane and Moseten people, only 1% of people are suffering from dementia. In contrast, 11% of people 65 and older in the United States have dementia.
According toMargaret Gatz, the lead study author and professor of psychology, gerontology, and preventive medicine at the Center for Economic and Social Research at the University of California Dornsife College of Letters, Arts and Sciences.
Researchers used cognitive and cognitive impairment assessments conducted by a local team of trained translators and Bolivian doctors to diagnose dementia and cognitive impairment in the Tsimane and Moseten.
Only five individuals with dementia were diagnosed in the Alzheimers & dementia study, according to the Alzheimers Association Journal. One incident has been reported among 169 Moseten aged 60 and over.
8% of Tsimane and 10% of Moseten have mild cognitive impairment (MCI), which is usually linked to early stage memory loss or other cognitive ability, such as language or spatial perception. These rates are more comparable to MCI in high-income nations like the United States.
During neurological examinations and cognitive deficiencies, researchers were surprised to discover that study participants who had dementia or MCI frequently showed abnormal and prominent calcifications of their intracranial arteries.
Although calcifications were more common among cognitively impaired, scientists found these vascular calcifications in CT scans of people without dementia or MCI. They argue that more research is required to understand the role of vascular factors as well as infectious and inflammatory diseases which are most prevalent in these populations, along with other harmful events for dementia. To this end, the research team is currently returning to all the Tsimane and Moseten villages to revisit those who were previously assessed.
Tsimane, Moseten, and other indigenous peoples are among the subjects who have been diagnosed with dementia.
The roughly 17,000 Tsimane remain physically well-active throughout their lives, as they hunt, hunt, and farm with hand tools and prepare meals from the forest. These 3,000 Moseten also reside in rural villages and undertake subsistence agricultural work. They also have access to clean water and medical facilities, and are more likely to be literacy.
The researchers used their findings to a systematic review of 15 indigenous populations in Australia, North America, Guam, and Brazil. That earlier study found dementia prevalence ranging from 0.5 percent to 20% among indigenous older adults.
Due to a higher amount of contact with their non-indigenous neighbors and the adoption thereof, indigenous people in other parts of the world have significant levels of dementia. These include diabetes, hypertension, alcohol abuse, and diabetes.
The Tsimane and Moseten populations have a remarkable healthy heart in the early morning, with the lowest incidence of coronary atherosclerosis (a disease that shows in the form of fat deposits inside arteries) of any population known to science. This distinction may be linked to their subsistence lifestyle.
Another study published last year in The Journal of Gerontology, led by USC assistant professorAndrei Irimia, found that the Tsimane experiences less brain atrophy than their American and European counterparts.
According to researchers, lifestyle factors in higher-income countries, such as the absence of physical activity and diets rich in carbohydrates and fats, contribute to heart disease and may also boost brain aging.
Alzheimers research: A race for solutions
Alzheimers and other dementias are most important known risk factors, according to convergence evidence. Low formal education, midlife hypertension and diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, physical inactivity, and most recently air pollution are among the most common modifiable risk factors.
According to estimates, an increasing global population, along with the emergence of these profound risk factors, will result in a tripling of the number of people with dementia worldwide by 2050.
We''re in a struggle for solutions to the rise of Alzheimer''s disease and related dementias, according to Hoillard Kaplan, a research co-author and professor of health economics and anthropology at Chapman University, who has studied the Tsimane for over two decades. These varied populations strengthen and strengthen our understanding of these diseases and generate new insights.
By collaborating with populations like the Tsimane and the Moseten, we can better understand the implications of global human variation and what human health was like in different situations before industrialization, according to Enjamin Trumble, a research co-author and an associate professor at Arizona State University. What we do know is that living in sedentary, urban, and industrial life is quite complex when compared with how our ancestors lived for more than 99% of humanity.