KiDS Project: The New Map Of The Universe Revealed An Unusual Uniformity Of The Creation
Astronomers from the KiDS project have prepared a detailed map of the cosmos that covers 5% of the observable Universe. These maps show that, contrary to theoretical calculations and observations of the "echo" of the Big Bang, the matter is distributed fairly uniformly throughout the Universe. The project published the results on its website.
"These data, as well as recently discovered discrepancies in the rate of expansion of the Universe in the first epochs of Its existence and now, indicate that there are problems in the standard cosmological model (meaning the model ΛCDM). The question is whether we can eliminate them with little blood, changing, for example, the behavior of dark matter," – commented on the conclusion of the work, one of its authors, an astrophysicist from the University of Edinburgh (UK) Tilman Trester.
In the first moments of its existence, matter in the Universe was as uniform as possible and evenly distributed over a small space. Later, when its boundaries began to expand rapidly, this monotony was broken by so-called baryon acoustic oscillations-a kind of echo of the Big Bang.
These fluctuations distributed all visible and dark matter along the expanding borders of the Universe rather unevenly, forming a "cosmic web" of galaxies and connecting threads of dark matter. Studying its structure, scientists hope, will help to find out what factors controlled the appearance of baryon oscillations in the first moments of the Universe's life.
A new crisis in cosmology
Participants of the KiDS project have been observing baryon acoustic oscillations for many years. They study how strongly galaxies near and far from us bend the light that passes through their surroundings. According to Einstein's theory of relativity, the larger the mass of such objects, the more strongly the properties of light change, so that you can fairly accurately determine their mass and estimate how matter is distributed throughout the Universe.
In total, astronomers have obtained similar data for 31 million galaxies, which are located both at a short distance from the Earth and at very distant distances of up to 10 billion light-years. By combining these data, Trester and his colleagues prepared a map of the distribution of matter across the Universe, then compared it with the predictions of the standard cosmological model ΛCDM.
The comparison showed that the Universe is unusually uniform – for the observable Universe, this figure was almost 10% more than the calculations of theorists, which are based on observations of the microwave "echo" of the Big Bang. Scientists have different values for another important cosmological parameter, which shows how irregularities in the distribution of matter throughout the Universe as a whole bend the light moving through it.
While the statistical significance of this discrepancy does not reach the level of a full-fledged discovery, one random error per 3.5 million attempts. Nonetheless, scientists are confident that in the next one or two years, when the "field of vision" of KiDS will be expanded by about a third, they will reach this level. If the discrepancies between theory and observations do not disappear, it will mean that modern cosmology needs to be radically revised, astrophysicists conclude.