New Measurements Of The Age Of The Universe Have Deepened The Crisis In Cosmology
Astronomers accurately measured the age of the Universe from the microwave "echo" of the Big Bang using the ACT ground-based Observatory and confirmed the results of observations on the Planck Space Telescope. This discovery deepened the crisis in cosmology, which is associated with different results of measurements of the rate of expansion of the Universe. The results of their work are available in the electronic scientific library arXiv.
"In the past, many of our colleagues assumed that these discrepancies were due to errors in the data – either at the Planck telescope or at Hubble. We have shown that the results of observations on ACT and Planck completely coincide. This suggests that we have no reason to doubt the quality of the results of these observations," said one of the authors of the work, an astrophysicist from the Flatiron Institute in New York (USA), Simone Aiola.
As Iola notes, this coincidence suggests that the crisis in cosmology is related to real phenomena, and not to errors and errors in the work of tools that are used to measure the rate of expansion of the Universe and to estimate its age.
This crisis was marked about three years ago when almost simultaneously published data on the rate of expansion of the Universe, obtained during observations of the microwave "echo" of the Big Bang using the Planck telescope and for variable stars-Cepheids in the milky Way and supernova flashes in neighboring galaxies, which were conducted by the Hubble Observatory.
These values are very different. The second type of observation showed that two galaxies separated by a distance of about 3 million light-years should fly apart at a speed of about 73.9 km/s; this is 9% more than the observations of microwave echoes of the Big Bang show-67.9 km/s –
The main questions of cosmology
According to Ayoola, these disputes have been further warmed in the past year. Then astronomers tried to calculate the age of the Universe, based on observations of the speed of movement of nearby clusters of galaxies, which for many years conducts "Hubble." This data unexpectedly revealed that the Big Bang occurred several hundred million years later than the data from Planck and another microwave space telescope, WMAP, suggested.
The new discrepancies have forced astronomers who deal with the early epochs of the Universe to start rechecking data from all three telescopes using other instruments and observatories. Among them was the CHILEAN act telescope, which was built in 2007 in the Atacama desert to observe the microwave "echo" of the Big Bang.
Due to the inhomogeneities in brightness and other properties of this radiation, it is possible to determine very precisely the age of the Universe, as well as to find out how the matter was distributed within it in the first moments of the existence of the Universe and at what speed its borders expanded.
Iola and his colleagues obtained the first accurate "ground" data of this kind by analyzing the information that acts collected between 2013 and 2016 – after the Hubble and Planck data were collected, which caused the cosmological crisis.
The new measurements, according to the researchers, almost completely coincided with the values obtained by the participants of the Planck scientific team: the age of the Universe was 13.77 billion years, and the speed of its expansion was 67.6 km/s. This calls into question the possibility that there were errors in the results of observations of the microwave "echo" of the Big Bang before.
Scientists have recently received similar confirmation for Hubble measurements; this, as their authors suggest, suggests that the rate of expansion of the Universe could actually have changed in 13.7 billion years after the Big Bang. In this case, all modern cosmological theories that describe the birth of the Universe will have to be completely revised, scientists conclude.