The Reason For The Shift Of The North Magnetic Pole From Canada To Russia Found
Researchers from the UK and Denmark analyzed satellite geophysical data for twenty years and found that the displacement of The earth's North magnetic pole is determined by the "competition" of two magnetic anomalies, one located under Northern Canada, and the other under the Siberian shelf. The results are published in the journal Nature Geoscience.
It is no secret that the position of The earth's magnetic poles does not coincide with the geographical poles. In addition, magnetic poles have the ability to move.
The magnetic pole of the Northern hemisphere was discovered in 1831 by the English polar Explorer James Ross in the Canadian archipelago. Since then, its location has changed significantly, and it is now located in the Central part of the Arctic ocean, drifting towards the Russian Arctic coast.
Researchers from the University of Leeds in the UK and the Technical University of Denmark analyzed data from satellite observations of The earth's magnetosphere by the European Space Agency's Swarm mission over the past 20 years and found that the position of the North magnetic pole at any given time is determined by the ratio of deep negative magnetic field anomalies of peculiar magnetic flows that form near The earth's core. One of these streams in the Northern hemisphere departs towards Canada, and the other towards Siberia.
"The importance of these two sites in determining the structure of the field near the North magnetic pole has been known for several centuries, the words of Philip Livermore are quoted in a press release) from the University of Leeds. Historically, the Canadian section was stronger, which is why the pole was above Canada, but in the past few decades, the Canadian section has weakened and the Siberian section has strengthened, which explains why the pole is shifting from its historical position."
Between 1970 and 1999, changes in the interaction between the mantle and the planet's core led to an expansion of the area of the magnetic flux spot under Canada, reducing the magnetic field strength within it. This caused the accelerated drift of the magnetic pole.
Since the 1990s, its speed has increased four times and is now 50-60 kilometers per year. At the end of 2017, the pole passed a distance of 390 kilometers from the geographical North pole, continuing to move towards the East Siberian Sea. If this speed is maintained, it will reach the Severnaya Zemlya archipelago in 50 years.
The rapid displacement of the magnetic pole is a problem for navigation systems of various levels, from ship traffic control systems in the oceans to Google maps in household smartphones. All of them are based on an exact reference to the geographical coordinates of the magnetic pole, which points to the arrow of any compass.
The position of The earth's magnetic poles, taking into account their drift, is calculated in the framework of global magnetic field models created by various international geophysical organizations. The national center for geophysical data of the USA is responsible for updating the World magnetic model. The last such update occurred last year.