The most comprehensive foreign "contribution" to greenhouse gas emissions in China was made by the US
Scientists have calculated the share of foreign countries in China's industrial greenhouse gas emissions. It turned out that in the first place is the United States – Chinese enterprises that produce goods for this country generate about 3.5% of all industrial carbon dioxide emissions in China. In total, all exports account for almost 15% of these emissions. The research was published in the scientific journal Nature Communications.
"In order to develop a strategy to combat global warming, it is necessary to understand how the consumption of goods around the world affects local greenhouse gas emissions. We have identified several areas in China with a large number of CO2 sources, in order to reduce emissions in which the PRC will need to negotiate with importing countries, " said one of the authors of the study, a climatologist from the University of Michigan, Shen Qu.
Today, scientists have no doubt that global warming exists and that it will radically change The earth's climate if the increase in average annual temperatures can not be contained at the level of 1.5-2 °C. This is confirmed by data from climate satellites, thousands of weather stations and ocean buoys, as well as various computer models of the climate.
To prevent this scenario from becoming a reality, all countries of the world signed the Paris agreement on combating global warming in December 2015. Its participants are obliged to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the next few decades and keep them at this level in the future. In particular, Russia has pledged to keep emissions at 70-75% of the 1990 level.
Many critics of the Paris agreements and other measures to combat global warming, who live in developing countries, often point out that such agreements are unfair by definition because they do not take into account the role that international trade plays in the distribution of sources of CO2 and other greenhouse gases around the planet.
In particular, many multinational companies have moved "dirty" production from first world countries to China and other developing countries. As a result, in developed countries, the number of emissions decreased, and where these enterprises "moved," on the contrary, it increased. Qu and his colleagues tried to assess how true this is for China – the largest source of greenhouse gases and the main exporter of industrial goods for almost all countries in the world.
To do this, scientists used data that was collected in 2012 on behalf of the Chinese government. They represent the amount of CO2 released by factories and other industrial enterprises of major corporations in China and its international partners. This information, as Qu notes, helped him create a map on which you can see all the "international" sources of emissions in the territory of China.
As it turned out, such emissions account for about 15% of the total amount of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases from the entire Chinese industry. A significant part of their sources, about 70%, was concentrated in three industrial centers that occupy only 1% of the total area of the PRC – in the vicinity of Beijing, as well as in the deltas of the Yangtze and Zhujiang rivers.
Despite their small size, these areas of China, if separated into a separate state, would rank fifth in total emissions, second only to the rest of China, the United States, India, and Russia. The United States makes the largest contribution to these greenhouse gases, according to climate scientists ' calculations. They account for about a quarter of the greenhouse gases produced. The second and third places are taken by Hong Kong and Japan with 11% and 9%.
Such features of these industrial regions, as well as their connections with the economies of other countries, according to scientists, should be taken into account when developing measures to reduce emissions and improve the efficiency of the Chinese industry. Researchers believe that this problem can be solved only with the participation of international partners who are directly related to such greenhouse gas emissions and are interested in continuing cooperation with China.